Careers for Poverty Aid: Lifting Up the Poor Through Jobs & Community Service
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Meet the Expert
Robert L. Hawkins
Robert L. Hawkins is the McSilver Associate Professor in Poverty Studies at the NYU Silver School of Social Work and is the Assistant Dean and Director of the undergraduate program. He received his PhD in social policy with an emphasis on low-income families and children from the Heller School of Social Policy and Management at Brandeis University in 2002. Dr. Hawkins has expertise in poverty and welfare, social capital use and development, race and social policy, community participatory research with mixed methodologies and social policy analysis.
There are many misconceptions about people living in poverty, particularly when it comes to how they became poor and why they stay poor. Many think the individuals are to blame, but the economic system makes it extremely difficult for some people to live above the poverty line. Fortunately, there are numerous career and volunteer opportunities for those who want to help others break free from the poverty trap. This guide addresses many of these opportunities while also exploring who is most affected by poverty and why it's vital they receive help.
Understanding the Poverty Trap
A series of interconnected factors tend to keep people in poverty. To escape poverty, people need capital and credit. However, people in poverty are seldom able to gain either, reinforcing a spiral known as the poverty trap
Poor Job Prospects
Taking Action for Poverty: Career & Volunteer Paths
Many career and volunteer opportunities exist to help those facing poverty overcome different elements of the poverty trap. Applying personal interests and career goals in ways that make a difference to underserved individuals and communities can help them escape the cycle and decrease the poverty gap over time.
How You Can Help the Poor
Become a Social and Community Service Manager
Social and community service managers are embedded within nonprofit organizations that help those living in poverty. They develop programs targeted at particular demographic groups and oversee day-to-day operations in addition to hiring staff, making budgets and writing grant proposals.
Volunteer at Soup Kitchens & Food Banks
Helping impoverished individuals get the nutrition they need can be as simple as making or serving food at a local food bank or soup kitchen.
Did you know?
Food kitchens rely heavily on volunteer help. DoSomething.org reports that among the 63,000 agencies in the Feeding America network, 11 percent of pantries, 41 percent of kitchen programs, and 66 percent of pantries are operated exclusively by volunteer staff.
Become a Teacher or School Counselor
Children and adolescents spend around 1,200 hours a year at school, which means teachers and school counselors can profoundly influence their students' lives. Low-income pupils need to have teachers who understand their unique needs and circumstances and are able to extend extra support to help them succeed academically.
Become an Instructional Coordinator
Instructional coordinators can help on an administrative level by evaluating and adjusting school curricula to meet the needs of low-income students.
Become a Tutor
Volunteer tutors can provide one-on-one academic support to students, encouraging them and helping them set aside time specifically for studying.
Where to get involved:
Heart Math Tutoring
AARP Foundation Experience Corps
Or contact a local school about volunteering opportunities.
Become an Entrepreneur
People interested in running their own business while making a difference in the lives of underserved individuals can hire and train under-skilled people living in poverty. Not only will it help them earn a living and add structure to their lives, but the social and practical skills they learn can open up future job opportunities.
Become an Employment Mentor
Volunteers at libraries and community centers can help the poor increase their employability by assisting them with resumes, conducting mock interviews or even teaching them practical skills.
Where to get involved:
Contact your local library or community center about job-focused volunteer opportunities.
Become a Counselor or Social Worker
Substance abuse counselors, substance abuse social workers and mental health social workers address various factors that contribute to substance abuse, including poverty, employment status and home life, to help clients fight addiction and improve their lives and relationships.
Volunteer at Rehab Centers
Rehabilitation centers sometimes use volunteers to help keep the center running smoothly and increase patient success. Tasks can range from handling administrative duties to landscaping to facilitating group activities.
Where to get involved:
Volunteers of America
Become a Landscape Architect
Public spaces that people can freely enjoy encourage community engagement. Landscape architects, for instance, design parks and green spaces that serve as communal areas for its residents.
Did you know?
Landscape architects can help improve the mental health of community members. Studies show living near green spaces reduces stress and depression.
Join Community Cleanups
By putting on cleanup campaigns to maintain public spaces, people can participate in beautifying their neighborhoods, which not only makes them productive and engaged, but also gives a sense of pride and ownership to the community.
Where to get involved:
Keep America Beautiful
Become a Correctional Treatment Specialist
These professionals develop rehabilitation programs for people after they get out of prison or finish parole to help them avoid crime in the future.
Become a Lawyer or Paralegal
By practicing public interest law as either lawyers or paralegals, professionals can provide low-income community members with legal assistance and help them understand the law and avoid crime.
Become a Youth Mentor
Volunteering as a youth mentor can help young people stay focused on academics and other goals, and encourage them to stay away from crime.
Where to get involved:
Mentor Foundation USA
MENTOR: The National Mentoring Partnership
United We Serve
Did you know?
Mentored youth are 55 percent more likely to go to college and 78 percent more likely to regularly volunteer reports the National Mentoring Partnership.
Become a Family & Marriage Counselor
With money a leading cause of stress in relationships, family and marriage counselors can help families strengthen their bonds and work through difficult times.
Become a Child & Family Social Worker
Child and family social workers specialize in helping needy children and families find housing and other benefits. They also help reunite families that have been separated.
Volunteer at Family Support Centers
Spend time helping at family support centers, which can offer free group counseling and other services to families.
Where to get involved:
Family Support Services
The Family Support Center
Center for Family Services
Did you know?
According to a U.S. Census report, 28 percent of children with a divorced parent lived under the poverty line in 2009 – compared to 19 percent of other children.
Become an Urban Planner
Urban planners develop community land, making sure to balance commercial and residential needs. They decide where to place public parks, community centers and affordable housing options.
Become an Economist
Economists can assess where funds can best be used to help a community and where economic adjustments should be made to benefit the community and its people.
From the Expert: Interview With Robert L. Hawkins
Is it possible to eliminate the poverty trap? If so, how?
What contributes most to poverty, and how do those factors play into the ability to escape poverty?
Why is poverty such an important issue that needs to be addressed?
Why the Fight Against U.S. Poverty Is a Must-Win
For many people, the war on poverty is a humanitarian one. In a country where it is believed that hard work will lead to success, it is difficult to see people barely make it by despite intense effort.
There are also economic reasons to end the poverty trap and help people become self-sufficient. Poverty greatly inhibits social mobility, and if young people can't live better than their parents, the number of people who can't escape poverty increases with each generation. This means the gap between wealthy and poor will get wider, and the economy will destabilize as more people need assistance from programs that have fewer people able to fund them.
The result could be a poverty trap for the nation as a whole rather than for individuals and communities. The fight against poverty must be won before the problem becomes too great to handle.
|15% of Americans were considered impoverished in 2014.||In 2014, 20.8 million people reported family income below one-half of the poverty threshold. They represented 7 percent of all Americans.|
|14% of households were food insecure in 2014.||For every 100 low-income families, only 57 low-income rental homes were available in 2013.|
Sources: Talk Poverty; United States Census Bureau, 2014
Who Does Poverty Affect Most in America?
Poverty affects people of all ages, races and genders, but certain groups, particularly minority populations and children, are more susceptible to poverty than others. The tables below break down poverty by demographic.
|White (not Hispanic)||10.0%|
|Hispanic (any race)||24.7%|
|Age Group||Number (In Millions)||Male||Female|
|Under Age 18||15.5||21.2%||21.1%|
|18 to 64||26.5||11.6%||15.3%|
|65 & Older||4.6||7.4%||12.1%|
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2014
Ending Child & Youth Poverty in the U.S.
The poverty rate for children under 18 years old is disproportionately higher than other age groups. Helping these children is the best chance for ending the poverty trap. A good education and the support of peers and administrators can help impoverished students succeed in school, gain better job opportunities, increase self-confidence and improve their interactions with others.
Learning can be facilitated by also addressing children's health and nutritional needs. Considering that well-educated, confident and motivated students will be more likely to join the workforce and become self-sufficient adults, investing heavily in children now will lead to an increased rate of return on the economy over time.
|Children make up 23% of the population but carry 33% of the burden of poverty||More than ½ of U.S. students qualify for free or reduced-cost lunches at school|
|On average, low-income students have a 15% lower graduation rate than other students.||1 of every 200 children live in foster care|
Check out the following national organizations that help end childhood
poverty, or get involved with a local organization.
Sources: Southern Education Foundation; Talk Poverty; U.S. Census Bureau, 2014; U.S. Census Bureau, Quick Facts
Youth Below the Poverty Line: Day in the Life of a High School Student
For many impoverished youth, life is lived one day at a time. Between lack of trust of school authority figures and fear of stigmatization, high school students living in poverty often go without helpful resources and live very different lives from their thriving counterparts. Here's a snapshot of one student's day living below the poverty line.8 a.m.
Arrives just in time for class but not early enough to get free breakfast at the cafeteria — the bus doesn't get to school before the cafeteria closes.Noon
Grabs a snack from the vending machine and hurries to the library to finish an assignment that requires Internet research.4 p.m.
Helps siblings with their homework, pulls dinner together and waits for mom to get home from work.8 p.m.
Gets siblings ready for bed and helps mom clean up.Midnight
Works on homework, but skips math because the calculator was too expensive.
Where Poverty Strikes Hardest
The following table shows which U.S. states experience the most poverty. More than half of the states with the highest poverty rates use the federal minimum wage.10 Most Impoverished States
|State||Poverty Rate||Living Wage||Poverty Wage||Minimum Wage|
Sources: Living Wage Calculator; Talk Poverty; U.S. Department of Labor, 2016
The inability to break the poverty cycle internationally is caused by many of the same factors as in the U.S., including the unavailability of capital and credit. However, developing countries have different challenges to contend with that make poverty even worse. War, famine, limited access to clean water, illiteracy, government corruption and disease can all keep people in poverty. Fortunately, many organizations exist solely to fight global poverty.
CARE's mission is simple: serve individuals and families in the poorest communities in the world. The organization provides hunger and disaster relief, puts on education and women's empowerment programs, and coordinates economic development efforts.
International Monetary Fund
The IMF helps governments gain financial stability. Volunteers can participate in rebuilding projects, feeding programs, fundraising parties and mentorship programs to help fight various types of poverty.
Partners in Health
Partners in Health's mission is to provide healthcare options for the world's impoverished individuals and communities.
Peace Corps volunteers serve in countries all over the world and provide a variety of aid depending on volunteers' backgrounds. Education and infrastructure development are two common focus areas.
UNICEF aims to end global poverty among young children. They provide vaccines and other health services, while also working with governments to craft policies on education, nutrition, child protection and social inclusion.
Resources & Organizations for Poverty Aid
Along with the resources referenced throughout this guide, the following websites provide valuable information for those wanting to learn more about domestic and global poverty.Poverty USA
This charity publishes podcasts, videos, articles and other educational resources to help people learn about poverty in the U.S.Talk Poverty
This site, developed by the Center for American Progress, provides basic poverty statistics as well as state-by-state numbers on childhood poverty, food insecurity and unemployment. The site also produces articles and podcasts.The Borgen Project
This nonprofit works to end poverty and hunger. Its website offers a variety of information on poverty and ways to help, including firsthand accounts and blogs.U.S. Census Bureau
The U.S. Census is a great source for up-to-date statistics on poverty in America.World Bank
The World Bank has tons of information on global poverty, much of it supplied by its research team.
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